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Air pollution attributable postneonatal infant mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas: a risk assessment study / Kaiser R in Environmental health [Environ Health], Vol. 3, N° 1 (05/2004)
Titre : Air pollution attributable postneonatal infant mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas: a risk assessment study Type de document : Article scientifique Auteur(s) : Kaiser R ; Romieu I ; Medina S ; Schwartz J ; Krzyzanowski M ; Kunzli N Appartenance auteur(s) InVS DSE Année de publication : 2004 Article en page(s) : p.4 Langues : Anglais (eng)
in Environmental health [Environ Health] > Vol. 3, N° 1 (05/2004) . - p.4
Mots-clés : Pollution atmosphérique ; Mortalité ; Mort subite ; Nouveau né ; Particule atmosphérique ; Enquête cohorte ; Etats Unis ; Milieu urbain ; Evaluation risque Mots-clés : APPAREIL RESPIRATOIRE [PATHOLOGIE] Résumé : BACKGROUND: The impact of outdoor air pollution on infant mortality has not been quantified. METHODS: Based on exposure-response functions from a U.S. cohort study, we assessed the attributable risk of postneonatal infant mortality in 23 U.S. metropolitan areas related to particulate matter <10 microm in diameter (PM10) as a surrogate of total air pollution. RESULTS: The estimated proportion of all cause mortality, sudden infant death syndrome (normal birth weight infants only) and respiratory disease mortality (normal birth weight) attributable to PM10 above a chosen reference value of 12.0 microg/m3 PM10 was 6% (95% confidence interval 3-11%), 16% (95% confidence interval 9-23%) and 24% (95% confidence interval 7-44%), respectively. The expected number of infant deaths per year in the selected areas was 106 (95% confidence interval 53-185), 79 (95% confidence interval 46-111) and 15 (95% confidence interval 5-27), respectively. Approximately 75% of cases were from areas where the current levels are at or below the new U.S. PM2.5 standard of 15 microg/m3 (equivalent to 25 microg/m3 PM10). In a country where infant mortality rates and air pollution levels are relatively low, ambient air pollution as measured by particulate matter contributes to a substantial fraction of infant death, especially for those due to sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory disease. Even if all counties would comply to the new PM2.5 standard, the majority of the estimated burden would remain. CONCLUSION: Given the inherent limitations of risk assessments, further studies are needed to support and quantify the relationship between infant mortality and air pollution. Lien externe DOI : DOI : 15128459 Corpus : Production scientifique InVS Permalink : http://opac.invs.sante.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=5656[article]Assessment of deaths attributable to air pollution: should we use risk estimates based on time series or on cohort studies? / Kunzli N in American Journal of Epidemiology [Am J Epidemiol], Vol. 153, N° 11 (06/2001)
Titre : Assessment of deaths attributable to air pollution: should we use risk estimates based on time series or on cohort studies? Type de document : Article scientifique Auteur(s) : Kunzli N ; Medina S ; Kaiser R ; Quenel P ; Horak F ; Studnicka M Appartenance auteur(s) InVS DSE Année de publication : 2001 Article en page(s) : 1050-5 Langues : Anglais (eng)
in American Journal of Epidemiology [Am J Epidemiol] > Vol. 153, N° 11 (06/2001) . - 1050-5
Mots-clés : Pollution atmosphérique ; Mortalité ; Enquête cohorte ; Evaluation risque Mots-clés : SERIE TEMPORELLE Résumé : Epidemiologic studies are crucial to the estimation of numbers of deaths attributable to air pollution. In this paper, the authors present a framework for distinguishing estimates of attributable cases based on time-series studies from those based on cohort studies, the latter being 5-10 times larger. The authors distinguish four categories of death associated with air pollution: A) air pollution increases both the risk of underlying diseases leading to frailty and the short term risk of death among the frail; B) air pollution increases the risk of chronic diseases leading to frailty but is unrelated to timing of death; C) air pollution is unrelated to risk of chronic diseases but short term exposure increases mortality among persons who are frail; and D) neither underlying chronic disease nor the event of death is related to air pollution exposure. Time-series approaches capture deaths from categories A and C, whereas cohort studies assess cases from categories A, B, and C. In addition, years of life lost can only be derived from cohort studies, where time to death is the outcome, while in time-series studies, death is a once-only event (no dimension in time). The authors conclude that time-series analyses underestimate cases of death attributable to air pollution and that assessment of the impact of air pollution on mortality should be based on cohort studies. PMID Pubmed : Pubmed : 11390322 Corpus : Production scientifique InVS Permalink : http://opac.invs.sante.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=4166[article]Development of NO2 and NOx land use regression models for estimating air pollution exposure in 36 study areas in Europe the ESCAPE project / Beelen R in Atmospheric environment [Atmos Environ], Vol. 72 ([01/06/2013])
Titre : Development of NO2 and NOx land use regression models for estimating air pollution exposure in 36 study areas in Europe the ESCAPE project Type de document : Article scientifique Auteur(s) : Beelen R ; Hoek G ; Vienneau D ; Eeftens M ; Dimakopoulou K ; Pedeli X ; Tsai MY ; Kunzli N ; Schikowski T ; Marcon A ; Eriksen K ; Raaschou Nielsen O ; Stephanou E ; Patelarou E ; Lanki T ; Declercq C ; Falq G ; Stempfelet M ; Birk M ; Cyrys J ; von Klot S ; Nador G ; Varro MJ ; Dedele A ; Grazuleviciene R ; Molter A ; Lindley S ; Madsen C ; Cesaroni G ; Ranzi A ; Badaloni C ; Hoffmann B ; Nonnemacher M ; Kramer U ; Kuhlbusch T ; Cirach M ; de Nazelle A ; Nieuwenhuijsen M ; Bellander T ; Korek M ; Olsson D ; Stromgren M ; Dons E ; Jerrett M ; Fischer P ; Wang M ; Brunekreef B ; de Hoogh K Appartenance auteur(s) InVS DSE Année de publication : 2013 Article en page(s) : 10-23 Langues : Anglais (eng)
in Atmospheric environment [Atmos Environ] > Vol. 72 [01/06/2013] . - 10-23
Mots-clés : Pollution atmosphérique Résumé : Estimating within-city variability in air pollution concentrations is important. Land use regression (LUR) models are able to explain such small-scale within-city variations. Transparency in LUR model development methods is important to facilitate comparison of methods between different studies. We therefore developed LUR models in a standardized way in 36 study areas in Europe for the ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) project.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were measured with Ogawa passive samplers at 40 or 80 sites in each of the 36 study areas. The spatial variation in each area was explained by LUR modelling. Centrally and locally available Geographic Information System (GIS) variables were used as potential predictors. A leave-one out cross-validation procedure was used to evaluate the model performance.
There was substantial contrast in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations within the study areas. The model explained variances (R2) of the LUR models ranged from 55% to 92% (median 82%) for NO2 and from 49% to 91% (median 78%) for NOx. For most areas the cross-validation R2 was less than 10% lower than the model R2. Small-scale traffic and population/household density were the most common predictors. The magnitude of the explained variance depended on the contrast in measured concentrations as well as availability of GIS predictors, especially traffic intensity data were important. In an additional evaluation, models in which local traffic intensity was not offered had 10% lower R2 compared to models in the same areas in which these variables were offered.
Within the ESCAPE project it was possible to develop LUR models that explained a large fraction of the spatial variance in measured annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations. These LUR models are being used to estimate outdoor concentrations at the home addresses of participants in over 30 cohort studies.
Lien externe DOI : DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.02.037 Corpus : Production scientifique InVS Permalink : http://opac.invs.sante.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=11362[article]Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project / Beelen R in Lancet [Lancet], Vol 383, N° 9919 ([01/03/2014])
Titre : Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project Type de document : Article scientifique Auteur(s) : Beelen R ; Raaschou Nielsen O ; Stafoggia M ; Andersen ZJ ; Weinmayr G ; Hoffmann B ; Wolf K ; Samoli E ; Fischer P ; Nieuwenhuijsen M ; Vineis P ; Xun WW ; Katsouyanni K ; Dimakopoulou K ; Oudin A ; Forsberg B ; Modig L ; Havulinna AS ; Lanki T ; Turunen A ; Oftedal B ; Nystad W ; Nafstad P ; De Faire U ; Pedersen NL ; Ostenson CG ; Fratiglioni L ; Penell J ; Korek M ; Pershagen G ; Thorup Eriksen K ; Overvad K ; Ellermann T ; Eeftens M ; Peeters PH ; Meliefste K ; Wang M ; Bueno de Mesquita B ; Sugiri D ; Kramer U ; Heinrich J ; de Hoogh K ; Key T ; Peters A ; Hampel R ; Concin H ; Nagel G ; Ineichen A ; Schaffner E ; Probst Hensch N ; Kunzli N ; Schindler C ; Schikowski T ; Adam M ; Phuleria H ; Vilier A ; Clavel Chapelon F ; Declercq C ; Grioni S ; Krogh V ; Tsai MY ; Ricceri F ; Sacerdote C ; Galassi C ; Migliore E ; Ranzi A ; Cesaroni G ; Badaloni C ; Forastiere F ; Tamayo I ; Amiano P ; Dorronsoro M ; Katsoulis M ; Trichopoulou A ; Brunekreef B ; Hoek G Appartenance auteur(s) InVS DSE Année de publication : 2014 Article en page(s) : 785-95 Langues : Anglais (eng)
in Lancet [Lancet] > Vol 383, N° 9919 [01/03/2014] . - 785-95
Mots-clés : Pollution atmosphérique ; Particule atmosphérique ; Mortalité ; Décès naturel ; Enquête cohorte ; Europe Résumé : BACKGROUND: few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollutants.
METHODS: we used data from 22 European cohort studies, which created a total study population of 367 251 participants. All cohorts were general population samples, although some were restricted to one sex only. With a strictly standardised protocol, we assessed residential exposure to air pollutants as annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with diameters of less than 2\b75 μm (PM2\b75), less than 10 μm (PM10), and between 10 μm and 2\b75 μm (PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, and annual average concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx), with land use regression models. We also investigated two traffic intensity variables-traffic intensity on the nearest road (vehicles per day) and total traffic load on all major roads within a 100 m buffer. We did cohort-specific statistical analyses using confounder models with increasing adjustment for confounder variables, and Cox proportional hazards models with a common protocol. We obtained pooled effect estimates through a random-effects meta-analysis.
FINDINGS: the total study population consisted of 367 251 participants who contributed 5 118 039 person-years at risk (average follow-up 13\b79 years), of whom 29 076 died from a natural cause during follow-up. A significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) for PM2\b75 of 1\b707 (95% CI 1\b702-1\b713) per 5 μg/m3 was recorded. No heterogeneity was noted between individual cohort effect estimates (I2 p value=0\b795). HRs for PM2\b75 remained significantly raised even when we included only participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the European annual mean limit value of 25 μg/m3 (HR 1\b706, 95% CI 1\b700-1\b712) or below 20 μg/m3 (1\b707, 1\b701-1\b713).
INTERPRETATION: long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution was associated with natural-cause mortality, even within concentration ranges well below the present European annual mean limit value.(R.A.)
PMID Pubmed : Pubmed : 24332274 Lien externe DOI : DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62158-3 Corpus : Production scientifique InVS Permalink : http://opac.invs.sante.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=11867[article]Evaluation of land use regression models for NO2 and particulate matter in 20 European study areas: The ESCAPE project / Wang M in Environmental Science & Technology [Environ Sci Technol], Vol. 47, N° 9 ([01/05/2013])
Titre : Evaluation of land use regression models for NO2 and particulate matter in 20 European study areas: The ESCAPE project Type de document : Article scientifique Auteur(s) : Wang M ; Beelen R ; Basagana X ; Becker T ; Cesaroni G ; de Hoogh K ; Dedele A ; Declercq C ; Dimakopoulou K ; Eeftens M ; Forastiere F ; Galassi C ; Grazuleviciene R ; Hoffmann B ; Heinrich J ; Iakovides M ; Kunzli N ; Korek M ; Lindley S ; Molter A ; Mosler G ; Madsen C ; Nieuwenhuijsen M ; Phuleria H ; Pedeli X ; Raaschou Nielsen O ; Ranzi A ; Stephanou E ; Sugiri D ; Stempfelet M ; Tsai MY ; Lanki T ; Udvardy O ; Varro MJ ; Wolf K ; Weinmayr G ; Yli Tuomi T ; Hoek G ; Brunekreef B Appartenance auteur(s) InVS DSE Année de publication : 2013 Article en page(s) : 4357-64 Langues : Anglais (eng)
in Environmental Science & Technology [Environ Sci Technol] > Vol. 47, N° 9 [01/05/2013] . - 4357-64
Mots-clés : Pollution atmosphérique ; Particule atmosphérique ; GIS ; Europe Résumé : Land use regression models (LUR) frequently use leave-one-out-cross- validation (LOOCV) to assess model fit, but recent studies suggested that this may overestimate predictive ability in independent data sets. Our aim was to evaluate LUR models for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) components exploiting the high correlation between concentrations of PM metrics and NO2. LUR models have been developed for NO2, PM2.5 absorbance, and copper (Cu) in PM10 based on 20 sites in each of the 20 study areas of the ESCAPE project. Models were evaluated with LOOCV and "hold-out evaluation (HEV)" using the correlation of predicted NO2 or PM concentrations with measured NO2 concentrations at the 20 additional NO2 sites in each area. For NO2, PM2.5 absorbance and PM10 Cu, the median LOOCV R2s were 0.83, 0.81, and 0.76 whereas the median HEV R 2 were 0.52, 0.44, and 0.40. There was a positive association between the LOOCV R2 and HEV R2 for PM2.5 absorbance and PM10 Cu. Our results confirm that the predictive ability of LUR models based on relatively small training sets is overestimated by the LOOCV R2s. Nevertheless, in most areas LUR models still explained a substantial fraction of the variation of concentrations measured at independent sites. PMID Pubmed : Pubmed : 23534892 Lien externe DOI : DOI : 10.1021/es305129t Permalink : http://opac.invs.sante.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=11482[article]Health costs due to road traffic-related air pollution. An impact assessment project of Austria, France and Switzerland. Air pollution attributable cases. Technical report on epidemiology / Kunzli N
PermalinkLong-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects / Wang M in Environment international [Environ Int], Vol 66 ([01/05/2014])
PermalinkPublic-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment / Kunzli N in Lancet [Lancet], Vol. 356, N° 9232 (Septembre 2000)
PermalinkReducing ambient levels of fine particulates could substantially improve health: a mortality impact assessment for 26 European cities / Ballester F in Journal of epidemiology and community health [J Epidemiol Community Health], Vol. 62, N° 2 (01/2008)